Poland

Natural gas market and infrastructure

The share of natural gas in Poland stood at 12.7% in 2009. The national gas demand steadily increased from 13.3 billion m³ in 2000 to 15.8 billion m³ in 2009, with an annual average growth rate of some 2%. Poland produced some 4.3 billion m³ of natural gas in 2010, which accounted for some 30% of the country’s demand. Poland’s total natural gas imports in 2010 amounted to some 10 billion m³. About 63.17% of the needed gas is imported from Russia. Minor gas amounts are provided by Denmark(7.34%) and Ukraine (0.04%).

The gas market in Poland is still the market of a single buyer, in the form of PGNiG SA, including all (except transfer) activities connected with so called ‘gas chain’ − production, import, wholesale and retail trade, storing and distribution. In each of these fields PGNiG SA still holds the dominant position, with the share of over 98% of the market. 

Current situation influences on the selection of applied regulatory tools, and its consequence is full tariffication of natural gas prices.

In accordance with recommendations of President of Energy Regulatory Office (URE) contained in the document “Gas release program in Poland” and “Roadmap for gas prices release in Poland”, the PGNiG prepared a project of a gas release program aimed to create market situation where gas prices for companies will be released. URE’s President foresees to release gas prices in Poland on 1st January 2013, however, this market release would not include households.

Relevance regarding the energy supply system

The electricity production has a large carbon foot print since Poland's primary energy consumption is based on hard and brown coal. Biomass contributes with 6.4% to primary energy consumption, a share mostly derived from solid biomass often co-fired in coal power plants. Therefore, with the NREAP 2010 the country set ambitious targets and aims at almost doubling its share in renewable energy production up to 15% in 2020 and several measures have been determined. Regarding the demand for gross final energy in electricity biogas is planned to increase to 344 ktoe (4 TWh) in 2020 and to 592 ktoe (6.9 TWh) in 2030. In terms of heat, the Polish Energy Policy aims at 503 ktoe (5.8 TWh) in 2020 respectively 800 ktoe (9.3 TWh) in 2030. Starting from approximately 74 MW generation capacity of gross electricity on biogas CHP 2010, this figure is planned to raise up to 802 MW in 2020 and 1,379 MW in 2030 which means a share of biogas CHP of 2.7 % of in 2030. 

Gas grid infrastructure data

The transmission system is owned to 99.6% by GAZ –SYSTEM, 0,6% are owned by the Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG).  The sole TSO is GAZ-SYSTEM which is fully state-owned. Its key task is the transport of natural gas via the 9,768 km expanding transmission network throughout the country to supply the distribution networks and final customers connected to the transmission system. 

The distribution system comprises 116,325 km. Six regional gas companies of PGNING handle the local distribution areas and supply gas to households, industrial customers and wholesalers:

  • Mazovian Gas Company (MSG)
  • Greater Poland Gas Company (WSG)
  • Lower Silesian Gas Company (DSG)
  • Upper Silesian Gas Company (GSG)
  • Carpathian Gas Company (KSG)
  • Pomeranian Gas Company (PSG)

Two PGNIN DSO's in Greater Poland and  Pomeranian region have provided tariffs for biomethan.

There are few other companies that buy gas from PGNiG and sales to end users through their own local distribution system. 

The biggest:

  • EWE Energia Sp. Z o.o. –   app. 1200 km 
  • G.En Gaz Energia S.A. –    2400 km
  • KRI S.A. –       218 km
  • CP Energisa S.A. -     300 km

MOP and operation pressure in grid: 

  • Grid low pressure – do 10kPa
  • Grid medium pressure 10 kPa – 0,5 MPa
  • Grid increased medium pressure 0,5 Mpa – 1,6 Mpa 
  • Grid high pressure 1,6 MPa – 10  MPa 

The gas market in Poland is regulated by the Energy Regulatory Authority.

CNG infrastructure data

In Poland the utilisation of CNG as a vehicle fuel is still in the starting phase. Approximately 1,700 cars run on CNG at the streets being served by around 30 filling stops.