Sweden

 

Natural gas market and infrastructure

Picture caption: Graphic presentation of the natural gas system in Sweden, both actual and as envisioned by the Swedish TSO, Swedegas. The actual grid is blue, the envisioned one darker green (no plans, will need state approval); Actual LNG terminals cyan coloured boats, envisioned/planned orange ones. The green biogas plants envisions how large biogas plants can interact with the grid. www.swedegas.se/smarta_energisystem/Infrastruktur/Karta

The Swedish natural gas market is small, with only a 3% share of the primary supply (18TWh), and a 1.6% share of the final utilisation (6.4TWh). 62% goes to industry applications, 31% to the residential sector (district heating just as important as direct utilisation), and the minor part to transports. All figures from 2010. As can be seen in the graphic, the gas grid is only present in a restricted part of Sweden. In these areas the one fifth share of natural gas in the energy mix is more similar to the European situation. <New paragraph> The energy supply in Sweden is dominated by renewables and nuclear power, but oil is dominating the transport sector. Approximately half of the final utilisation is based on renewables, 15% from nuclear, and the rest is fossil products, mostly used in the transport sector. Coal is a minor part, mostly used in the steel industry.

Gas grid infrastructure data

All natural gas in Sweden is imported. The grid is supplied through its connection to the Danish natural gas system, and the bulk of the gas used in Sweden is supplied through this route. There is only one uniform gas quality in the gas grid. Work is under way to prepare for the future decrease in wobbe index, with a larger share of German gas in the Danish gas. All grid transported gas is odorised at the entry point (Klagshamn) with THT (10-15 mg/Nm3). A minor share of the natural gas has in recent years started to be provided as LNG. The Nynäshamn LNG import terminal, operational from 2011, is supplied from Norway. The Lysekil LNG import terminal currently under erection might be too. <New paragraph> MOP is designed to 80 bar, but practically it is limited to 70 bar. The transmission grid is 620 km long, with 40 regulation stations. The high pressure (70 bar) part consists of 540 km. Operational pressures in the remaining part is designed for 30, 24 or 16 bar. The distribution grid, inclusive of service lines to households, with operational pressures of 0.1-4 bar, is 2600 km long. The national gas grid is private. The only TSO, responsible for the high pressure grid shown in the graphic, is Swedegas. DSO’s are E.ON, Stockholm Gas, Göteborg Energi, Öresundskraft and Lunds Energi.

CNG infrastructure data

Status end of 2012: 40,036 NGV's (37,686 LDV's, 1,768 buses and 582 freight HDV's). 132 public refuelling stations and 47 private ones (Current map: www.energigas.se/fakta-om-gas/fordonsgas-och-gasbilar/tanka-gas/). LNG is available for trucks in 5 refuelling stations. Total consumption: 1,426GWh, out of which 57% is renewable. For current statistics, see www.scb.se/sv_/Hitta-statistik/Statistik-efter-amne/Energi/ (reported as Nm3, biomethane 9,67kWh/Nm3, natural gas 11kWh/Nm3). The backbone of the NGV market is the bus sector, constituting half of the market and continues to grow. The long-term commitment of the Swedish Public Transport Authorities is an important driver for many biomethane projects. It has been shown that the bus sector constituted an essential niche for the emergence and growth of the Swedish NGV market. The overall Swedish NGV market has a  growth of 15-25% per year. An important new development is the Dual-fuel-powered 7-litre Volvos (CNG) and 13-litre Volvos (LNG), and the opening of the marine sector to LNG powered shipping.