Sweden

 

Technical standards for biomethane and natural gas

"Naturgaslagen (the Natural Gas Act) (2005:403;  www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/fakta/a0050403.htm) - “Natural gas also refers to biogas and gases from biomass in accordance with Chapter 1 Section 2 of
naturgaslagen (the Natural Gas Act).” Condition of system access: “…tariffs, inter alia, for the transfer and storage of natural gas must be reasonable, objective and non-discriminatory.”
Refusal of system access: “In government bill 2004/2005:62, p. 197, it states that the holder of a natural gas pipeline has the right to place demands on the quality of the gas that is fed into the pipeline. If the gas does not possess the requisite quality, it is not considered to be natural gas and the holder of the pipeline therefore has no obligation to transfer the gas within the pipeline system”
<New paragraph>Biomethane injection into the grid is not regulated directly in Sweden. B2B solutions, with DSOs directly involved as owners in the grid injection scheme, have facilitated this. Future large-scale projects with injection into the transmission grid requires more formal negotations, but are still handled at the market level. The only TSO, Swedegas, have on-going discussions with E.ON/Göteborg Energi regarding such future projects (thermal gasification and methanation facilities under erection in Göteborg and under planning in Malmö/Landskrona; large (110 GWh) biomethane plant under erection outside Malmö)."

Requirements for gas quality

"Natural gas grid quality specification of Swedegas: www.swedegas.se
Wobbe index (gcv) 49,0-56,9 MJ/Nm3
Gross calorific Value 36,5-47,6 MJ/Nm3
Relative Density 0,555-0,70
Temperature 50 °C
Hydrocarbon dewpoint -2 °C 70 bar
Water dewpoint -8 °C 70 bar
Total S (excl H2S and odorization) 10mg S/Nm3
Odorization (yearly average/peak) 6/16mg S/Nm3
H2S 5mg S/Nm3
O2      0,1mol%
CO2     2,5mol%
No hydrate formation at -8 °C up to 70 bar
Technically free of dust

The Swedish standard for biomethane as automotive fuel has been used ad-hoc for the biomethane injection schemes. SS 15 54 38 (1999) “Motor fuels – Biogas as fuel for high-speed otto engines”."

Grid access restrictions

No restrictions as long as the Swedegas gas quality specification is upheld. Landfill gas has technically been restricted, by way of the nitrogen limit in SS 155438 (O2+N2+CO2<5). With the current introduction of cryogenic upgrading, this is no longer the case. Thus, the current revision of the Swedish standard is taking this into account, introducing limits for siloxanes.

Barriers

The strongest barrier in Sweden is economic. This is the explanation why electricity production from biogas is so low in Sweden; the economic incentive is tenfold lower than in Germany. Most of the biogas projects rely on the economics of selling upgraded biomethane as automotive fuel, and the only real incentive is the tax exemption. Business cases involving energy crops and the new technology of thermal gasification are on their economic limit, so the lack of long-term policies, both regarding keeping existing policies and introducing new ones, is quite a barrier for these projects.ommitment. Lack of a strong fiscal incentive when compared to electricity production